Yumuşak robotik, pürüzsüz ve karmaşık bir hareket elde etmek için doğada bulunan yumuşak cisimlerin hareket mekanizmalarını taklit etmeye dayanan büyüyen bir alandır. Karmaşık ortamlarda hareket edebilen “yumuşak bedenler” arasında solucanlar, yılanlar, larva böcekler, ahtapot ve yılan balıkları yıllar içinde geliştirilen, ilham alabileceğimiz çok çeşitli stratejiler sunar.



Yumuşak robotlar, öncelikle çevre malzemelerle uyumu sağlayan sıvılar, jeller ve elastomerler gibi kolayca deforme olabilen maddelerden oluşur. Uyumluluk eşleştirme, iç yükü eşit şekilde dağıtmak ve arayüzey arası stres konsantrasyonlarını en aza indirmek için birbiriyle temas eden malzemelerin benzer mekanik sertliği paylaşması gerektiği prensibidir. [1] Bununla birlikte, bu ilke, yumuşak malzemelerle (E = 102-106Pa) etkileşime giren, hasara veya mekanik immobilizasyona neden olan sert robotlara (E = 109Pa) uygulanmaz (burada E, Young'ın Modülüdür; bu, bir katı maddenin sertliğinin bir ölçüsünü verir) malzeme). Yumuşak malzemelerle bu tür etkileşimler, örneğin doğal cilt, kas dokusu, hassas iç organlar gibi organizmalar, ayrıca organizmalar, biyolojik işlevselliklerin yapay kopyaları vb. Gibi yaygın olarak yayılır. Mekanik uyumdaki bu dramatik uyumsuzluk nedeniyle, Sert robotların uyarlanmadığı ve hatta samimi insan etkileşimi için tehlikeli olduğu sonucuna varıldı. Bu nedenle, doğada bulunan materyallerin ve organizmaların elastik ve reolojik özelliklerine uyan robotlara ihtiyaç vardır ve bu, yumuşak robotların çözümü getirebileceği yerdir.

Yumuşak robotlar tasarlamak, onların mekaniği, güç kaynağı ve kontrolünde tamamen yeni modeller gerektirir. [2] Bununla birlikte, malzemeleri yeniden düşünmek, tasarım stratejileri ve üretim teknikleri, birçok alanda makro ve mikro uzunluk ölçeklerinde yeni yumuşak robotik alanları açmalıdır (sağlık, insan yardımı, saha araştırması…).


Bu derleme, uygulamalarında daha derine inmeden önce, mevcut yumuşak hareketlerin temel üretim yönteminin yanı sıra var olan farklı türden harekete geçirme konularını ele almaktadır.




Pnömatik Şebeke aktüatörleri (PneuNets) en yaygın yumuşak robotlardır ve içinde basınçlı akışkanların bir dizi kanal ve bölmede dolaşabileceği bir elastomer olan yumuşak bir malzemeden yapılmıştır. Bu bölmelere basınç uygulandığında, sıkışmış olan akışkan malzemenin içinden stres oluşturarak malzemenin gerilmesine, deforme olmasına ve aktüatörün hareketini mümkün kılanlara neden olur. Bu hareketin doğası gömülü odaların geometrisi ve duvarlarının malzeme özellikleri değiştirilerek kontrol edilir. Genel olarak, bir akışkan elastomer robotun her bir parçası bükülür ve bu bükülme, malzeme gerilmesinden kaynaklanır.


Eğer bir robot tek bir homojen elastomerden oluşuyorsa, en genişleme en ince yapılar üzerinde gerçekleşecek ve böylece robotun hareketi bu nedenle mikroakışkan devresinin geometrisine bağlı olacaktır. Bununla birlikte, farklı elastik davranışlara sahip malzemeler, aktüatör davranışı üzerinde daha fazla kontrol sağlamak için de kullanılabilir.

Yumuşak robotik, pürüzsüz ve karmaşık bir hareket elde etmek için doğada bulunan yumuşak cisimlerin hareket mekanizmalarını taklit etmeye dayanan büyüyen bir alandır. Karmaşık ortamlarda hareket edebilen “yumuşak bedenler” arasında solucanlar, yılanlar, larva böcekler, ahtapot ve yılan balıkları yıllar içinde geliştirilen, ilham alabileceğimiz çok çeşitli stratejiler sunar.


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